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z2&++'0'++h++9zzffffCHAPTER 10: THE SOCIAL DISCOUNT RATE
Purpose: This chapter deals with the theoretical issues pertaining to the selection of an appropriate real social discount rate (SDR). When evaluating government policies or projects, analysts must decide on the appropriate weights to apply to policy impacts that occur in different years. Given these weights, denoted by wt, and estimates of the real annual net social benefits, NBt, the estimated net present value (NPV) of a project is given by:
EMBED Equation.3 (10.1)
Selection of the appropriate social discount rate (SDR) is equivalent to deciding on the appropriate set of weights to use in equation (10.1). Sometimes the weights are referred to as social discount factors.
Discounting reflects the idea that a given amount of real resources in the future is worth less today than the same amount is worth now. This is because:
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \r 11) Via investment, one can transform resources that are currently available into a greater amount in the future.
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n2) People prefer to consume a given amount of resources now, rather than in the future.
Thus, it is generally accepted that the social discount weights decline over time; specifically, 0 < wn wn-1 ... w1 w0 = 1. However, there is not as much agreement about the values of the weights. The key issue in this chapter concerns determining the weights.
Three unresolved issues are pertinent:
1) Whether market interest rates can be used to determine the weights.
2) Whether to include unborn future generations in determining the weights.
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n3) Whether society values a unit of investment the same as a unit of consumption.
Different assumptions about these issues lead to different approaches towards determining the SDR, which, in turn, lead to different discount weights. There is considerable disagreement about the underlying assumptions and, therefore, about the most appropriate approach. There is reasonable consensus over the discount weights appropriate once the approach is selected.
DOES THE CHOICE OF DISCOUNT RATE MATTER?
Yes choice of the rate can affect policy choices. Generally, low discount rates favor projects with the highest total benefits, while high SDRs rates favor projects where the benefits are front-end loaded.
THE THEORY BEHIND THE APPROPRIATE SOCIAL DISCOUNT RATE (SDR)
To understand the theoretical foundation of discounting, one must recognize that it is rooted in the preferences of individuals. Individuals tend to prefer to consume a given amount of benefits immediately, rather than in the future. Individuals also face an opportunity cost of forgone interest if they postpone receiving a given amount of funds until later because they could potentially invest these funds once they are received. These two considerations of importance to individual decisions -- the marginal rate of time preference and the marginal rate of return on private investment -- provide a basis for deciding how costs and benefits realized by society in the future should be discounted so that they are comparable to costs and benefits realized by society today.
An Individuals Marginal Rate of Time Preference (MTRP)
An individuals MRTP is the proportion of additional consumption that an individual requires in order to be willing to postpone (a small amount of) consumption for one year.
Equality of Discount Rates in Perfect Markets
In a perfectly competitive capital market, an individuals MRTP equals the market interest rate, i, as shown in Figure 10.1. In this two-period model, an individual may consume her entire budget (T) in the first period, she may invest it all in the first period and consume T(1 + i) in the second period, or she may consume at any intermediate point represented by the budget constraint in Figure 10.1, which has a slope of -(1 + i). Consumption is maximized at the point at which the indifference curve is tangent to the budget constraint, i.e. at point A. At point A, the slope of the indifference curve is -(1+p), the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) is 1+p, and the MRTP is p. Consequently, i = p. Note that as current consumption increases, MRS and MRTP decrease.
Rate of Return on Private Investment Equals the Market Rate Equals MRTP
The text next presents a more general two-period model that pertains to a group of individuals in a hypothetical country and that incorporates production. It is assumed that this country does not trade with other counties. Moreover, the chapter initially ignores taxes and transaction costs associated with making loans. Consequently, the net rate of return on savings corresponds to the market interest rate. In addition, the chapter initially ignores market failures such as externalities and information asymmetry, which could cause private and social discount rates to diverge from one another.
The optimal point is at X in Figure 10.2. At X, the slope of the social indifference curve, -(1 + px), equals the slope of the consumption possibility frontier, -(1 + rx). Consequently, the marginal social rate of time preference, px equals rx, the marginal rate of return on investment. Furthermore, at point X these rates would also equal the economy-wide market interest rate, i. Finally, at X, all individuals have the same MRTP because, if their MRTP > I, they would borrow at i and consume more in the current period until their MRTP = i and, if MRTP < I, they would postpone consumption by saving until their MRTP = i. Since everyones MRTP equals i, it would be the obvious choice for the SDR.
Real Economies: Problems with the Two-Period Model
An actual economy (with taxes and transaction costs) would not operate at the optimal point X, but at a point such as Z. Here, society would under invest and rz > pz. Furthermore, because different people face different tax rates, risk and costs, numerous values exist for both the MRTPs and the marginal rate of return on investment. Thus, there is no obvious choice for the social discount rate that can be derive from market rates of interest.
An Infinite-Period Model: Discounting Using the Optimal Grow Rate
Many years ago, Frank Ramsey suggested an approach for determining the SDR that does not rely on market rates of interest. Under this approach, which is known as the optimal growth rate method, society discounts future consumption for two reasons: (1) society is impatient and prefers to consume more now than in the future; (2) there is economic growth. Thus, px = d + ge, where px is the SDR based on the optimal growth rate method, d is the pure rate of time preference, g is the growth in per capita consumption, and e is a constant that is described below..
The model assumes that because of economic growth, the consumption of society will grow over time. However, because of the declining marginal utility of consumption, consumption should be made more equal than it otherwise would be. This adjustment should be proportional to the product of the per capita growth rate and an elasticity, e, that measures how fast the social marginal utility of consumption falls as per capita consumption rises. For example, if e = 1, a 10 percent reduction in consumption today from (say) $40,000 to $36,000 would be viewed as an acceptable trade-off for a 10 percent increase in consumption (say) from $80,000 to $88,000 at some future point.
DERIVING THE SDR FROM THE MARKET
This section discusses four potential social discounting rates that are derived from rates observable in markets. SDRs based on the optimal growth rate method are discussed later.) Use of all these market rates presume that that resources used for a public project should return more than they would if these resources remained in the private sector, an opportunity cost concept.
Using the Marginal Rate of Return on Private Investment (rz)
The argument for using the marginal rate of return on private investment as the social discount rate is that, before the government takes resources out of the private sector, it should be able to demonstrate that society will receive a greater rate of return than it would have received had the resources remained in the private sector. Therefore, the return on the government project should exceed rz, the marginal return on private investment.
The most compelling case for the use of rz was made by Arnold Harberger, who analyzed a closed domestic market for investment and savings, such as the one presented in Figure 10.4. In the absence of taxes and government borrowing, the demand curve for investment funds by private-sector borrowers is represented by Do and the supply curve of funds from lenders (or savers) is represented by So. With corporate taxes and personal income taxes, the demand and supply curves would shift to DI and DS, respectively, resulting in a market clearing rate of i and a divergence between rz and pz, as discussed previously. Harberger assumed that a government project would be financed entirely by borrowing in a closed domestic financial market. The demand for funds for the new project would shift the market demand curve to DI', the market rate of interest would rise from i to i', private-sector investment would fall by I and private-sector savings would increase by C. As the increase in private-sector savings exactly equals the decrease in private-sector consumption, the project would "crowd out" both investment (by I) and consumption (by C). Harberger suggests that the social discount rate should be obtained by weighting rz and pz by the respective size of the relative contributions that investment and consumption would make toward funding the project. That is, he suggests that the social discount rate should be computed as follows:
SDR = arz + bpz (10.8)
where a = I/(I + C) and b = (1 - a) = C/(I + C). Finally, Harberger asserts that savings are not very responsive to changes in interest rates. This assertion, which has some empirical support, implies that the SS curve is close to vertical and, as a consequence, C is close to zero. This, in turn, suggests that the value of the parameter a is close to one and, hence, the value of (1 - a) is close to zero. In other words, almost all of the resources for public-sector investment are obtained by crowding out private-sector investment. Thus, Harberger suggests that the marginal rate of return on investment, rZ, is a good approximation of the true social discount rate.
Numerical Values of rz. Perhaps, the best proxy for rz is the real before-tax rate of return on corporative bonds, which is on the order of 4.5 percent.
Criticisms of the Calculation and use of rz. There are several criticisms of both the use of rz and of its estimation, suggesting that using an SDR of 4.5 percent is an upper limit.
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \r 11) Private sector rates of return incorporate a risk premium. Therefore, if benefits and costs are measured in certainty equivalents, as recommended by the text, then using private sector rates would result in double counting, i.e. it would account for risk in two ways.
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n2) A project might be financed by taxes, rather than by loans hence, consumption would also be crowded out.
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n3) A project may be partially financed by foreigners at a lower rate than 4.5 percent.
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n4) Private sector returns may be pushed upward by distortions caused by negative externalities and market prices that exceed marginal costs..
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n5) There is no fixed pool of investment where government investment replaces private investment dollar for dollar. If the government is not fully employing all its resources, then complete crowding out of private investment is unlikely.
Using the Marginal Social Rate of Time Preference Method (pz)
Many analysts hold that the SDR should be thought of as the rate at which individuals in society are willing to postpone a small amount of current consumption in exchange for additional future consumption (and vice versa). In principle, pz represents this rate. Consequently, many believe that the SDR should equal pz. This rate can also be justified if a government project is financed entirely by domestic taxes and if taxes reduce consumption, but not investment. It is then appropriate to set a = 0 and b = 1 in equation (10.8), yielding an SDR equal to pz.
Numerical Values of pz. In practice, the best return that many people can earn in exchange for postponing consumption is the real after-tax return on savings. Therefore, one option is to use this rate as an estimate of pz. Starting with the nominal, pre-tax interest rate on government bonds and adjusting for taxes on savings and inflation suggests an estimate of pz of around 1.5 percent, with values of 1.0 percent and 2.0 percent appropriate for use in sensitivity analysis.
Criticisms of the Calculation and Use of pz.:
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \r 11) Individuals differ in preferences and opportunities some save and some borrow and some save by reducing debt. Since reducing some debt isnt taxed, people who do this earn a much higher after-tax return than other people. It is not clear how one can aggregate these different individual rates into a single SRTP?
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n2) Because many individuals simultaneously pay mortgages, buy government bonds and stocks and borrow on credit cards at high interest rates, it is unclear whether individuals have a single MRTP.
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n3) As pz < rz, use of pz as the SDR may justify very long-term investments that provide low returns at the expense of higher-returns in the private sector, thereby harming efficiency.
Using the Governments Borrowing Rate (i)
The case for using governments long-term borrowing rate, i, is that it reflects the governments actual cost of financing a project.
Numerical Values of i. Starting with the average monthly yield on 10-year U.S. Treasury bonds for the period between April 1953 and December 2001 and then adjusting for inflation yields a value for i of 3.7 percent, with a plausible range for sensitivity tests of 3 to 5 percent.
Criticisms of the Calculation and Use of i
1) Use of i as the SDR is only justified if only project beneficiaries pay the taxes needed to retire the governments loan, which is unlikely.
2) The U.S. cannot borrow at an unchanging real interest rate. Government borrowing will raise real interest rates and also crowd out some private sector investment. Use of i as the SDR would be most reasonable if all the governments borrowed funds were foreign, but this is unlikely.
Using the Weighted Average Approach (WSOC)
If a is the proportion of a project's resources that displace private domestic investment, b is the proportion of the resources that displace domestic consumption, and 1-a-b is the proportion of the resources that are financed by borrowing from foreigners, then this approach, called the weighted social opportunity cost of capital (WSOC), computes the social discount rate as the weighted average of rz, pz, and i. Specifically,
WSOC = arz + bpz + (1 - a - b)i (10.7)
As pz < i < rz, it follows that pz < WSOC < rz. Obviously, the previous methods are special cases of this more general approach.
Numerical Values of WSOC.
If a project is financed by taxes, which seems to be the usual case, then b would be large and a and (1-a-b) would be small and the value of the WSOC would be similar to the value of pz (i.e., 1.5 percent). If the project is is deficit financed, then b would be very small and the value of the WSOC would be between rz (4.5 percent) and i (3.7 percent)
Criticisms of the Calculation and Use of WSOC. Criticisms about the calculation of pz and rz and i also apply to calculating the WSOC. In addition, the value of the WSOC depends on the source of a projects funding and thus would vary among projects. Governments usually prefer a single discount rate.
THE SHADOW PRICE OF CAPITAL (SPC)
If all the resources used in a project displace current consumption and all the benefits produce additions to future consumption, then the social discount rate should reflect social choices in trading present consumption for future consumption and pZ would be the natural choice for the discount rate. However, projects could produce costs and benefits in the form of consumption or investment. Due to market distortions, the rate at which individuals are willing to trade present for future consumption, pZ, differs from the rate of return on private investment, rZ, as previously discussed. Thus, flows of investment should be treated differently from flows of consumption. The shadow price of capital converts investment gains or losses into consumption equivalents. These consumption equivalents, like consumption flows themselves, are then discounted at pZ.
The shadow price of capital method requires that discounting be done in four steps:
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \r 11) Costs and benefits in each period are divided into those that affect consumption and those that affect investment.
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n2) Flows into and out of investment are multiplied by the SPC to convert them into consumption equivalents.
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n3) Changes in consumption are added to changes in consumption equivalents.
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n4) Resulting amounts are discounted at pz.
A general expression for the shadow price of capital is:
EMBED Equation.3 (10.11)
where rz is the net return on capital after depreciation, is the depreciation rate of the capital invested, f is the fraction of the gross return on capital that is reinvested, and pz is the marginal social rate of time preference.
Numerical Values of the SPC. Estimates of rz and pz (4.5 percent and 1.5 percent, respectively) are provided above. For reasons discussed in the text, 17 percent appears to be a reasonable estimate of f and 10.0 percent seems to be a reasonable estimate of . Using these values and equation (10.11), the SPC equals 1.3. For sensitivity tests, a value of 1.47 should be used if pz is set equal to 1.0 percent and 1.21 if pz is set equal to 2.0 percent.
Using the SPC. It is unnecessary to apply the SPC, if any of the following conditions hold: (1) a project is strictly tax financed; (2) the supply of foreign funds is extremely responsive to the interest rate; (3) the project is small; (4) the percentage of costs and benefits that comes from investment is the same in every period. Under such circumstances, which are likely to approximate many situations, simply discounting with pz is appropriate. On the other hand, if a project is entirely or partially deficit financed and the supply of savings and foreign funds are assumed to be very unresponsive to the interest rate, then the displaced investment flows should be converted to their consumption equivalents using the SPC before discounting at pz.
Criticisms of the Calculation and Use of the SPC. Although this method is theoretically appropriate:
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \r 11) It is difficult to explain to policymakers how and why NPV calculations are made.
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n2) The method has heavy information requirements relative to other discounting approaches..
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n3) The allocation of costs and benefits to investment and consumption is fairly subjective and open to manipulation
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n4) The value of the SPC depends on the values of pz and rz and there can be subject to the criticisms that apply to determining these parameters.
USING THE OPTIMAL GROWTH RATE APPROACH TO DISCOUNTING (px)
The text provides evidence that capital markets are imperfect and that individual consumers do not behave as assumed by the standard economic model of intertemporal choice, and, hence, that market interest rates are not a good reflection of individual preferences. This suggests market interest rates may not provide appropriate values for the SDR. In addition, it is sometimes argued that, at best, market interest rates only reflect the preferences of those currently alive and thus fail to account appropriately for the effects of long-term projects on future generations. If market rates do not provide an appropriate basis for determining the SDR, it can instead be derived by using the optimal growth rate approach.
Numerical Values of px
As discussed earlier, the SDR based on the optimal growth rate method, px, can be computed from the following formula:
px = d + ge,
where
d = the pure rate of time preference
g = the growth in per capita consumption
e = the absolute value of the rate at which the marginal value of consumption declines as per capita consumption increases
The authors of the text estimate that real per capita consumption grew at 2.3 percent per annum between1947-2002 and based on values proposed by other economists set e = 1 and d =1 percent. These values imply that px = 3.3 percent. Using alternative values for g, e, and d suggests a range for px of between 2.0 and 5.0 percent for sensitivity analysis
If px, rather than pz, is used as the SDR, the shadow price of capital must be recomputed. For example, if px = 3.5 percent, rz = 4.5 percent, f = 17 percent, and = 10 percent, then the SPC = 1.09.
Criticisms of the Calculation and Use of the Optimal Growth Rate
1) The estimate of g used to compute px may be inaccurate.
2) The selection of the values for d and e depend on value judgments
3) If funds for a public sector investment would crowd out private sector investments and the private sector investments would reap greater returns than the public sector investment, then the private sector investments would improve social welfare more than the public sector investment, even if the NPV computed on the basis of px is positive.
INTERGENERATIONAL DISCOUNTING
So far weve discussed only constant (time-invariant) SDRs. There are at least four reasons, however, to suggest the use of a time-declining SDR instead:
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \r 11) Empirical evidence suggests that people use lower discount rates for events that occur farther into the future.
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n2) Long-term environmental and health consequences have very small present values when discounted using a constant rate, often implying that spending a relatively small amount today to avert a costly disaster several centuries in the future is not cost-beneficial.
SEQ 1_0 \* Arabic \n3) Constant rates do not appropriately take into account the preferences of future, as yet unborn, generations.
4) Constant rates do not appropriately allow for uncertainty as to market discount rates in the future. The text demonstrates that allowing for this uncertainty implies that lower and lower discount rates should be used to discount consumption flows that occur father and farther in the future.
Numerical Values for Time-Declining Discount Rates
Based on research by Newell and Pizer, the text suggests the two following time-declining rate schedules, the first based on the social marginal rate of time preference and the second based on the optimal growth rate model;
Yearpzpx0 - 501.5 percent3.5 percent50-1001.0 percent2.5 percent100-2000.5 percent1.5 percent200-3000.0 percent0.5 percentOver 3000.0 percent0.0 percent
RECOMMENDED SOCIAL DISCOUNT RATES
Figures 10-5 and 10-6 summarize the texts recommendations concerning the social discount rate. As indicated by these two figures, the discount rate, as well as upper and lower bounds for sensitivity tests, that would be used depends on whether:
1) The optimal growth rate approach (Figure 10-5) or the market-based interest rate approach (Figure 10-6) is preferred.
2) Whether the project is intergenerational (defined as having benefits or costs that would occur at least 50 years in the future) or intragenerational.
3) Whether funding the project is likely to crowd out private investment or only consumption.
THE SOCIAL DISCOUNT RATE IN PRACTICE
Discounting practices in government vary enormously. Many government agencies do not discount at all. Often the discount rate is prescribed by government review and monitoring agencies (e.g., OMB, CBO). In the U.S. and Canada, prescribed rates have been as high as 10 percent but have been trending lower. OMB now uses 7 percent. CBO uses lower rates; it favors the MRTP approach and uses 2 percent (based on the U.S. Treasury borrowing rate), with sensitivity tests based on 0.0 and 4 percent. The GAO favors the average nominal yield on Treasury debt maturing between one year and the life of project, less the forecast rate of inflation. In 2003, the British Treasury recommended using an SDR of 3.5 percent, which is based on the optimal growth rate method. It also recommended using a time-declining discount rate for projects with effects that occur after 30 years.
Boardman, Greenberg, Vining, Weimer / Cost-Benefit Analysis, 3rd Edition
Instructor's Manual 10- PAGE 8
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